Powerpoints for Safety Training

Slideshare.net is a file sharing website for powerpoint presentations. I have, over the years, uploaded several powerpoints to this website and they are available to you free of charge.

Simply download them and use them as you need.

After seeing a report that almost 100,000 people had viewed these presentations and over 1,000 had downloaded them, I realized that I had probably never mentioned them here on this blog so, to make up for that, here the links for you to have a look and download if you feel that they might be of use to you.

7 workers dead in confined space accident

According to The Epoch Times 7 workers died in a confined space in a Mexican Brewery owned by Corona yesterday.

It is unclear at this time what exactly happened but priliminary findings are saying that they seem to have died of exposure to toxic fumes while in a tank that they were cleaning.


It is not know whether proper ventilation procedures were in place or whether there had been some kind of failures to follow these procedures.

Confined Space procedures should have required the tank to be fully vented before employees entered it. It would furthermore have required employees to monitor the air quality, both before they entered the tank as well as continoussly while working in it.

At this time it’s still unclear whether they were overcome by fumes from the chemical that they were using to clean the tank or if an oxygen defficiency due to 7 people working together in one tank was the problem. Either way, it seems obvious that there weren’t any gas monitors in the confined space or, if they were, they were not working properly.

What’s sad is that these accidents are fully preventable. These 7 people died because they either weren’t trained properly or they chose to disregard that training.

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The Basics of Confined Space (Part 10)

Appendix Three

Oxygen levels and Concentration levels of typical gases potentially present in a confined space

Contaminant Alarm Concentrations
Oxygen <19.5% or >23%
Carbon Monoxide 35 ppm
Carbon Dioxide 5000 ppm
H2S 10 ppm
Nitrogen Dioxide 3.0 ppm
Chlorine 0.5 ppm
Methane >10% LEL
  1. ppm
Combustible Gases 10% LEL
Particulates >10% LEL

Final Note: Because of the complexity and variety of factors inherent in confined space issues as well as the seriousness of the injuries and because of the very real possibility of death. This document should not be construed as being anything more than basic guide. It is not to be considered a substitute for proper confined space training.

Download the complete pdf “The Basics of Confined Space” here.

The Basics of Confined Space (Part 9)

Appendix Two



This permit must be completed prior to entry into the confined space. Entry cannot be performed if any boxes are marked “No.” This permit is valid for only 8 hours only.

Date of entry:      Time of Entry:     

Location: ________________________________ Type of space:_________________________

Equipment to be worked on: _____________________________________________________

Work to be performed: __________________________________________________________

Anticipated time needed to complete work:__________________________________________

Anticipated Harzards:____________________________________________________________

Entry personnel: ________________________________________________________________

Attendants: ___________________________________________________________________

Acceptable conditions

1.    Atmospheric checks:    Oxygen     % O2     19.5 % to 23.5 %

            Explosive     % L.F.L.    ‹10% L.E.L./L.F.L.

            Toxic     ppm     0-35 ppm Carbon Monoxide

                 0-10 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide

    Atmospheric Tester’s Initials:_____________________ Time:_____________________

2.    Isolation of pumps/lines:                    N/A    Yes    No

    Pumps or lines blocked, blinked, or disconnected            ( )    ( )    ( )


3.    Ventilation:                    N/A    Yes    No

    Mechanical                    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Natural ventilation only                    ( )    ( )    ( )

4.    Hot work permit required                    ( )    ( )    ( )

5.    Atmospheric checks after isolation and ventilation, if applicable:

             Oxygen:     % O2    

                Explosive:      % L.E.L            

                 Toxic: ____________ PPM

6.    Communication procedures:    

7.    Lockout procedures, if applicable:     

8.    Entrant(s), attendant(s), and rescue personnel (if applicable) have        Yes    No

    successfully completed required training.        ( )    ( )

9.    Equipment:    N/A    Yes    No

    Direct reading sampling device which is properly calibrated    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Safety harnesses and lifelines for entrants and attendants    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Mechanical retrieval/hosting equipment    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Communication equipment    ( )    ( )    ( )

    SCBA or Type C air line respirator    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Personal protective equipment and clothing    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Electrical equipment/Lighting/Non sparking Tools    ( )    ( )    ( )

    Traffic barriers/entrance covers    ( )    ( )    ( )


I have reviewed the work authorized by this permit and the information pertaining to each item. Safety procedures have been received and are understood by all personnel.

Entry Supervisor: __________________________________________Date: ________________


The Basics of Confined Space (Part 8)

Appendix One

Definition of Terms
(Taken from the 1910.146 OSHA Standard)


Acceptable entry conditions – means the conditions that must exist in a permit space to allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required confined space entry can safely enter into and work within the space.

Attendant – means an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant’s duties assigned in the employer’s permit space program.

Authorized entrant – means an employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space.

Blanking or blinding – means the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely covers the bore and that is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.

Confined space – means a space that:

(1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and

(2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry.); and

(3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.


Double block and bleed – means the closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and locking or tagging two in-line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or vent valve in the line between the two closed valves.

Emergency – means any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants.

Engulfment – means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing.

Entry – means the action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.

Entry permit (permit) – means the written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

Entry supervisor – means the person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this section.

NOTE: An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation.

Hazardous atmosphere – means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:

(1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);

(2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;

NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less.

(3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;

(4) Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of this Part and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;

NOTE: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.

(5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.

NOTE: For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, section 1910.1200 of this Part, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.

Hot work permit – means the employer’s written authorization to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) – means any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.

NOTE: Some materials — hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example — may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim “feels normal” from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be “immediately” dangerous to life or health.

Inerting – means the displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.

NOTE: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.

Isolation – means the process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space by such means as: blanking or blinding; misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts; a double block and bleed system; lockout or tagout of all sources of energy; or blocking or disconnecting all mechanical linkages.

Line breaking – means the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury.

Non-permit confined space – means a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere – means an atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Oxygen enriched atmosphere – means an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Permit-required confined space (permit space) – means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:

(1) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

(2) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;

(3) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or

(4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Permit-required confined space program (permit space program) – means the employer’s overall program for controlling, and, where appropriate, for protecting employees from, permit space hazards and for regulating employee entry into permit spaces.

Permit system – means the employer’s written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit space to service following termination of entry.

Prohibited condition – means any condition in a permit space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized.

Rescue service – means the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces.

Retrieval system – means the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces.

Testing – means the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to be performed in the permit space.